19. Asırda Osmanlı Toplumunda Tasavvuf
This dissertation which was written by H. Mahmut YÜCER is on the religious-sufi life of the nineteenth-century Ottoman Empire. The study focused on the social and political dimensions, as well as religious teachings of Sufism, orders, and Sufis themselves.
A total classification shows that there existed 400 tekkes on Rumelian terrains, 350 in Anatolia, and other 300 just in Istanbul, all belonging to a total of twelve sufi orders. That meant in other words, one tekke for approximately thousand people.
Samarkandiyya and Zayniyya, which were active in Istanbul and Bursa during earlier centuries, lost their influence, as did Sivasiyya in Sivas, and Bayramiyya in Ankara. So were Cahidiyya in the Aegean coasts and Raufiyya in Istanbul replaced by other sects. Shabaniyya founded in itself three new branches, which all spread in Istanbul and in the western Black Sea coast: the Charkasiyya, the Kushadaviyya, and the Khaliliyya. Malamatism, Gulshaniyya, Sazaiyya, Jarrahiyya, Jalvatiyya, and Bektashiyya are seen as expanded across Rumelia and the Balkans, widely accepted among the ruling class and the ulema. The existence of Bektashi tekkes along the road from Istanbul to Kerbela and the Mewlevikhanes on the route to Hijaz are well known. So were tekkes on the road to Mekka established under the names of Ozbeks, Hindis, Afghans, and Kalenders to serve Asian pilgrims.
Khalidiyya, founded by Mawlana Khalid al-Baghdadi, expanded as a third wave of the Naqshibandiyya in Ottoman soil and became widely accepted especially among the ilmiye and the medrese belongers, and brought a fresh dynamism to the religious and sufi life. The Asian-rooted Naqshibandis, who used to work on handicraft, caused another richness for the cultural life of the Ottoman cities. Within the Kadiriyya, the Mushtakiyya and the Anwariyya (Shamsiyya) branches were founded. The Khalisiyyah branch, born in Northern Irak, expanded in Urfa, Sivas, Erzurum, and Karaman. Sayyadiyya and Marufiyya, two branches of Rifaiyya, arrived in Istanbul. Northern-Africa-rooted orders, like the Badawiyya and the Shazaliyya, opened up new tekkes in Istanbul and added new tones to the colorful cultural life of the great capital, especially in arts like calligraphy, tezhib and religious music.
The Bektashi order was suppressed by the state in 1826 not for religious, but political purposes; such methods were used from time to time also for other orders. The Meclis-i Meshayih in Istanbul and the Enjumen-i Meshayih in the provinces, were established to take the influential sufi leaders under control.
There seem no clashes to mention between the ulema and the Sufis. The thoughts of Ibn Arabi and Mawlana Jelaladdin Rumi became to be in demand in this century.
H. Mahmut YÜCER